Science at Work
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Science at Work

September 16, 2019


[ Music ]>>Sit down at the
table, please. Come on, guys. At the table, please. [music] Yeah. [ Music ]>>We have a new baby. [laughter]>>Yes. [laughter]>>Did mommy feel a kick
yesterday for the first time?>>Yeah.>>Dylan, hold hands. Bye bye, guys. Say, “Bye bye.” Bye bye. Big wave.>>Bye!>>Bye. Bye.>>Brendan Casey: I left
Hawaii to come to Fermilab. I remember the first day because
it was at a time when one of the big programs we
were doing here was just getting underway. So, when I showed up here
there was a laundry list of things that weren’t working. And so, it was just: Here. Jump in. Grab something. This is going to be your thing. You make this work. So, excitement is kind
of an understatement. From day one, it is okay, well,
it’s time to start learning.>>Herman White: We are
a discovery laboratory. What we do is to get an
understanding in terms of the basic constituents that
make up our universe and the way in which those constituents
interact with each other. Our laboratory is an Office of Science laboratory that’s
designed basically as a mission to look for those things that
essentially you don’t find in most any other laboratory
in the United States.>>Craig Hogan: Fermilab is
an incredibly exciting place. It’s a huge center of
just physics energy. Stuff happening. And that’s both in
theory and in experiments. So, intellectually,
it’s very exciting. Extreme cutting-edge research. Brand new knowledge. We have three frontiers
of fundamental physics. All three frontiers are
addressing the fundamental nature of matter,
energy, space and time. But they do so in
different ways.>>Herman White: The Cosmic
Frontier has to do essentially with the connection between the
particles that we look at here and the particles that
are produced naturally within the universe, itself. That is, within the cosmos — with galaxies and
galaxy clusters and black holes are
all connected to the fundamental particles that we can produce
in our laboratory.>>Craig Hogan: The Energy
Frontier is the one most familiar in Fermilab. We can smash together particles
at extremely high energy and see what comes out. Probing very small
scales the interiors of elementary particles.>>Herman White: And that
requires large accelerators and large detectors to go
along with those accelerators and an incredible amount
of computer technology to analyze the data
that we collect. And the other frontier is
the Intensity Frontier. This is a frontier that allows
us essentially to do studies in high-energy particle physics that may be extremely
rare in their reactions. The reactions are so rare that
we don’t see them readily. So, to be able to produce them, we have a high-intensity
particle beam, hence, the Intensity Frontier. And this allows us to
do millions and billions of reactions and
ferret out just a few of these very rare
reactions that are the science that we want to study. It’s somewhat like having a
small needle in a haystack and the haystack is
actually in a field of hay and it covers three-quarters
of the planet but you’re looking
for that one needle. So, the three frontiers cover
the vast size of the universe, the accelerator area that we can
actually control, essentially, the building of the components
that make up that vast universe. And then, of course, the
rare reactions that happened in the universe with our
high-intensity beams as we see in the Intensity Frontier. [ Music and slide
projector sounds]>>Brendan Casey: That ring
out there, the Tevatron, was the largest superconductor
ever built. So big you can see
it from space. You can see it in your airplane
if you’re flying in and landing at O’Hare, and that’s how
we looked for new particles. We looked for new
things at higher energies than anyone had ever
looked before.>>Herman White: This
is just what happens within a research facility. When you finish some part of that research
activity, you finish. You do something else. And that doesn’t mean that
you build another laboratory. It means you come up
with a different idea to use the infrastructure
you already have.>>Brendan Casey: So,
where we’re standing now is in the antiproton
production complex. What we’re in the process of doing is converting
these accelerators into a muon production complex. And it just turns out we
have all this infrastructure that we put into
making antiprotons. It’s just right for making the
type of muons that we need. And we’re going to make one of the world’s greatest
muon production facilities in these rings, in
these tunnels. And we’re going to do some
of the best muon experiments that have ever been done. We’re going to push
the envelope, orders of magnitude compared to what other experiments have
been able to do in the past.>>Herman White: We
push the envelope. We do new things here. If you have an imagination, if
you can come up with new types of things and new ways of doing
things, this is the place to be. I think the future of
Fermilab is inevitably tied to doing new things, having new
ideas, exploring those ideas. Some of those ideas come up to
be things that actually take you down a path that you never
thought of doing before. And this happens in
high-energy physics all the time like the World Wide Web and using neutrons
for cancer therapy. And all these sort
of things happen because we have some
very imaginative people at Fermi Laboratory who say, “I wonder what would
happen if I did this?” [music] And many of
those questions — in fact, in our business, most of those questions
— lead to a discovery. [ Music ]>>Denton Morris: Fermilab
is a lot like a car. Your car has got a
lot of moving parts. When you buy it brand
new, it works beautiful, and you love that new car smell. But if you don’t maintain
it, after 10 or 20 years, you haven’t changed the oil, you
haven’t changed the air filter, it’s not going to be running
very well if it runs at all.>>We’ve got 13 or 14 miles
of equipment in the tunnel. And thousands and thousands
of devices in there. When they’re running
well, nobody ever wants to turn them off to work
on them, to maintain them. So, we end up usually running
them just as long as possible until we have to shut down. Because when we’re running,
we’ve got, you know, thousands of volts, thousands of amps powering all this
equipment in the tunnel. Nobody can go in there. But eventually, we have to
go in and work on things.>>Mary Convery: Normally, the
accelerators run 24 hours a day, 7 days a week continually
providing beam to the experiments. However, usually,
about once a year, we shut down for maintenance and
sometimes for other upgrades. Lots of different jobs. [ Music ]>>Brendan Casey: So,
this is a bird’s eye view of the Fermilab site. You could see all
the different rings, which are different
accelerators, and all the different
lines, which are beam lines. And right here is Wilson
Hall, our high-rise. Everything starts
right on the west side of Wilson Hall over here. So, we start out with
a bottle of hydrogen, and that’s where we
get our protons from. So, we pull them out
and we bring them down this first accelerator
here. This is our linear accelerator
where we pump energy into there. And, as the particles
travel down the accelerator, they get faster and
faster and faster. Now the problem is: If we wanted
to get them as fast as we need to get them, we’d have to
make this linear accelerator really long. So instead, at the end of
the linear accelerator, we shoot the particles into
a circular accelerator. Our first circular accelerator
here is called the Booster. And each time the particles go around the booster they get
faster and faster and faster until they get to
the maximum energy that we can get into
the Booster. So, after that, we take
them out of the Booster. We bring them into
this ring here. This is the Main Injector. We play the same trick
as they go around. They get faster and faster
and faster until we get them up to the perfect
energy, the sweet spot for doing different
things with them. So, one of the things we
used to do with protons in the Main Injector
is we’d shoot them into the Tevatron ring. And we’d also shoot them
over here, make antiprotons and shoot those into
the Tevatron ring. We’d bring those together
in different collisions at the CDF experiment,
in the DZero experiment. And we’d search for new
particles in the proton, antiproton collisions.>>These experiments have
been running for a long time. CDF over there. DZero over there. We’ve been taking
data like gangbusters, and now we’ve got billions
and billions of events. So, all that information is now
on tapes that are all sitting in the computing division. [Background music] Even though
the experiments aren’t running anymore, the next
step is really going through that data again
and again and again. Are there new things — new
particles that we could find? Is there information that we
have that can help the LHC? If the LHC discovers something,
can we come back and say: What information
do we have here? The two data sets
together is going to give us a lot
more information. So, it’s gold. It’s Fort Knox over there. That’s our Fort Knox. And that’s a process that will
go on for the next decade. [music]>>The other thing we
can do with protons in the Main Injector
is we can shoot them into different beam
lines and smash them into the different
targets and get all sorts of different things coming out. And have different
sets of experiments in all these different buildings that you see along
these beam lines here. Now something that
we’ve only started doing in the last decade — and
what we’ll continue to do — is take protons out
of the Main Injector, shoot them into a target and
make a beam of neutrinos. And so we have a
neutrino beam line here that goes all the
way to Minnesota. And then we’re gonna have a
neutrino beam line that comes around here and goes all
the way to South Dakota for neutrino experiments
out there. So, with this complex of
accelerators, we could do just about anything you’d ever
wanna do with protons. [music]>>Mary Convery: Especially
in the accelerator division, you know, we rely more on
technicians and operators and engineers and probably than
any on either group at the lab. You know, the physicists
are very important when the machines are
running and for figuring out what we want to do next, how we want to design
our new machines. But during a shutdown
like this it’s — and even when we’re
running and things break, it’s absolutely critical
that we have a great group of technicians.>>Denton Moore: A
lot of people think that Fermilab is a laboratory
that’s just physicists. A bunch of people in lab coats
just doing physics research. And in reality, they’re not the
majority of the people here. No physicist makes
this equipment, installs the equipment
and maintains it. That’s done by machinists. It’s done by engineers. A lot of technicians
to maintain and install and upgrade the systems. In addition to that, of course, we have all the people
keeping the whole lab running. High-voltage electricians,
mechanics. Somewhere there’s an accountant
that pays me every month. I don’t know how that works. But, you know, this is a very
diverse group of people here.>>Mary Convery: That’s one
of the things I really love about Fermilab is
I think, you know, everybody takes pride
in their work. It’s like my feeling is that
we’re a big happy family and, you know, we all work together
for the good of Fermilab. So, that’s one of the things
I really like about this lab. [ Music ]>>Bonnie Fleming: Okay. Let’s go. [laughter] Sam, do you
wanna pick out a spoon and bib? Okay. Bye bye, Sam. Bye. My kids make me
a better physicist. They certainly teach
me time management. You know, and I may not work
the fabled 80-hour week, but I sure eke every minute out
of every day that I’m at work.>>How are you today?>>Good. How are you?>>Craig Hogan: A
very special way that Fermilab works is
teams of scientists. So, they have in
their DNA the desire to work together as a team. And that is a very
powerful thing. It means that you could do
very large, complicated, challenging projects that you
couldn’t do anywhere else. At a place like Fermilab, even
beyond the borders of the lab, in collaboration with
universities across the country, the labs around the
world, Fermilab is involved with all of those things.>>Bonnie Fleming:
If we break the world down into the smallest
possible parts, the smallest parts we can
come to are elementary or fundamental particles,
and there are 12 of them. And three of them are the
neutrinos, and they come in three different flavors:
The electron neutrino. The muon neutrino. And the tau neutrino. Neutrinos are fantastically
interesting particles but difficult to study. They’re electrically neutral. That’s the “neut” part of them. And they’re very tiny. That’s the “ino” part
of them so “neutrinos.” Electrically neutral
and very tiny. So, this is ArgoNeut. It’s a neutrino detector. You never actually see a
neutrino in the detector. You see the remnants
of what happens when a neutrino hits
something in the detector. Now the thing that complicates
neutrino flavor is the fact that neutrinos oscillate
between their different flavors. I can create a neutrino
beam that’s purely one kind of neutrino, and it
can spontaneously morph into another flavor
of a neutrino. Let’s think of an analogy
for neutrino oscillations. And we can think about one of my children’s favorite
topics, which is ice cream. So, you start at the
ice cream factory with your three standard flavors
of ice cream: Strawberry, vanilla and chocolate. And you drive from the ice cream
factory to the ice cream store. And what you don’t
anticipate is: The time it took to drive the truck
to get to the store, some of the strawberry
becomes chocolate. All of the strawberry and
the vanilla become chocolate. That would be my
children’s preference. And that’s what neutrino
oscillations are. Your three flavors of neutrinos
change until you measure them at the near site:
What they started out at the ice cream factory. And at the far site, what
you actually deliver. And that tells you different
properties of neutrinos. And that’s the revolution
in neutrino physics that happened just
over a decade ago. [ Music ] Bonnie Fleming: Now we’re trying to study how matter is
different than antimatter. That’s the holy grail. We live in a matter-dominated
universe, and we don’t know where the antimatter, which
should’ve been created in equal amounts in the
early universe, went. So, we study neutrinos
to understand that.>>Deborah Harris: Discovering
that neutrinos were the source of the disappearance of
all of the antimatter that must have been
produced at the Big Bang, that would be a great discovery
for science because it’s one of these questions
that, you know, this is such a fundamental
principle, that matter and antimatter get created in
equal portions, and it’s sort of embarrassing that we don’t
know the answer yet why it is that there’s this huge
imbalance between matter and antimatter in the universe. It’s like, you know,
you can understand, explain away, so many things. You know, why is the sky blue
and all this kind of stuff, but you can’t explain why there
are no antiparticles around. So, that’s why it would be
a really great discovery for science.>>Bonnie Fleming: I want to
see neutrino interactions. It’s so exciting just to
see these beautiful images of neutrino interactions
and to see that we can get these
detectors up and running easily. Some day we want to
build a really big one. That’s the goal of
building these detectors from the smallest scales
to learn as much as we can up to the biggest scales — high-rise-size detectors so
that we can look for matter, antimatter, asymmetry
in the neutrino sector. The holy grail will take many
years, so it’s a process. And the process is just as
much fun as the eureka moment. Maybe even more fun. [ Music ] I never imagined,
as a physicist, that I would work
deep underground. It’s kind of fun to do so. You have to take an
elevator that goes down 100 meters from
the surface. And it rattles as it goes. Very industrial. Neutrinos pass through the
earth nearly unnoticed, so we don’t actually
have to build a beam line between Fermilab and Minnesota. We can just let the neutrinos
travel through the earth, streaming through like little
ghost particles like they travel through the earth all the time,
until they get to the detector where we hope some of them stop. [ Music ]>>David Schmitz: The
whole purpose of MINERvA, I should say, is to study how
neutrinos interact with matter. And it turns out that the
atom that it’s interacting with has a big impact on the
type of interaction that occurs or the way the interaction
happens. The final look of the
interaction will be different if it happens on iron versus on
water versus on lighter elements like hydrogen or helium. And the purpose of
the experiment is to study those types of effects. Yet in the future, we’re going
to do the next generation of oscillation experiments. Well, what kind of
materials do we use in the neutrino oscillation
experiments? We use iron and water and
these types of materials. And it turns out water
is used pretty commonly in neutrino oscillation
experiments, so we decided to design and construct
this object. [music] So, the tank
is full of water. So, what that means is there’s
a whole lot of hydrogen atoms and a whole lot of oxygen atoms. So, when the neutrino enters
into the water volume, and one of them just
happens to interact with either the hydrogen or,
more likely, the oxygen atom because it’s bigger
than the hydrogen — if you think of each nucleus
as a set of billiard balls where the oxygen
would have, you know, 16 billiard balls
all grouped together, but you can’t see
the pool table. There’s a sheet blocking
your view of the pool table. But if somebody on
the other side of that sheet hits the cue
ball — our neutrino — hard enough into the
racked oxygen nucleus. And you’re standing on the
other side, and you see, Aha! The seven ball. Aha! The four ball. Then you can deduce
what happened on the other side of that sheet. And that’s basically what we’re
trying to do with this detector by looking for what kind
of particle comes out of that neutrino billiard break. [ Music ] Brendan Casey: Now something
that we really don’t understand at all is that neutrinos
oscillate like crazy. Quarks oscillate — not
as much as neutrinos, but they still oscillate. No one is yet to see a
direct transition from a muon into an electron or an
electron into a muon. So, that’s one of the
things that we want to find. A muon is 200 times as
heavy as an electron is. And we have no idea why. If you have a muon just
transitioning straight into an electron, this just
violates so many laws of physics that we have because the laws
of physics have been built up to say that this
can’t happen. So, we want to reinvent
the laws of physics. And if we discover this
process, it will force us to reinvent those
laws of physics. [ Music ]>>Craig Hogan: I think
theorists are quite emotionally attached to chalkboards. There’s often a question
about whether you want to use a chalkboard
or a whiteboard. And my answer to that one
is: Chalkboard is better because you can stand
there holding your chalk for a long time while
you’re thinking about what you’re going to do. Possibly not saying anything
but just standing there. If you’re holding a marker pen, it dries out while
you’re standing there. And chalk is ready to go
when you’re ready to go. Solving the mystery of dark
energy is a huge challenge because we don’t know
what dark energy is. [laughter] Dark energy not
only pervades the galaxy, it pervades all of empty space. So, all the space between the
galaxies is full of dark energy. Dark energy is the energy
that is in the vacuum, in the emptiest space
that you can make. You could describe it
as a new kind of energy or you can describe it
as a new kind of gravity. I mean, we don’t
know which it is. [music] So, we’re starting
by looking more carefully at the expansion of
the universe and trying to see whether it affects
the growth of structure or has some other effects
on those large scales. Basically, by making
more precision studies of the universe as a whole
seems to be the way to start. [ Music ] The dark energy camera
is just like it sounds. It’s a camera, and we’re going
to use it to study dark energy. And it’s a very large camera. It has half a billion pixels,
and it’s super precise. And it’s going to go
on a large telescope. It’s going to go on a
4-meter telescope in Chile. So, it’ll see deeper and wider
than anybody’s ever seen before. It will look very
deep into space. And over the course of a few
years, we’ll get pictures of about a billion
galaxies with it. [ Music ]>>Brenna Flaugher:
This is the camera. You can see it’s
not very lightweight or easy to carry around. This thing will be
mounted on that thing, which is called the “barrel.” The camera actually
bolts to the top of it where the hook is
hanging right now. And then that whole thing gets
picked up and put into the cage and mounts to the hexapod. And then we take it all apart
and ship it all to Chile. And then we do it all again, but
then it’s on the real telescope. So, this is our model
of the telescope. The rings that you see up on our
telescope simulator match these two rings that are at
the top of the telescope. This shows you how the whole
thing ends up fitting together. The CCDs in this are cooled to
liquid nitrogen temperatures, and that makes them very, very
low noise and very sensitive. [music]>>Craig Hogan: With
the dark energy camera, we can’t actually take
pictures of dark energy. At least we don’t think so. It doesn’t emit light. It doesn’t absorb light. However, the dark
energy has gravity, and the gravity affects
the motions of things. It affects the motions
of galaxies. It affects the motions of light. And the light we can see
with the dark energy camera. So, what we’re looking for is
very subtle effects on the light of many, many galaxies. And we think that these overall
properties of the empty space between galaxies will
have enough of an effect that we can tease out the
effects of dark energy.>>Brenna Flaugher: Now we know that the visible stuff is only
a few percent and dark matter is about 20 to 25 percent. The dark energy is 70
percent of what makes up all the stuff
in the universe. They call it “dark
energy” and “dark matter” because you can’t
actually see it. Nobody knows what it
is, and there’s lots of people coming up
with crazy ideas. And so, we really need
data, and this is going to provide a big chunk of data
to help us understand that. [ Music ]>>Craig Hogan: We think
that dark matter is left over from the early universe. There’s a lot of indirect
evidence and arguments for that. So, we think it’s some
new kind of stuff, a new particle that’s never
been seen directly except through these gravitational
effects, and so you might ask: Well, you can’t see it, so
how do you know it’s there? And the answer is: We
only know it’s there because of its gravity. If it weren’t there, the
galaxy would fly apart. So, you have this indirect
evidence that it has to be there and there’s a whole lot of it,
but we want to look for it. [ Music ]>>Michael Cooke: It should
never come back any higher than it started at because that would break
conservation of energy. Raise your hand if
you think he’s going to lose his nose today? [laughter] Oh, Dave,
they’re betting against you. Here it goes. Are you okay? [laughter] Oh. So, that’s conservation
of energy. It can’t come back with
more than it left with. Thank goodness. [ Music ]>>Craig Hogan: The bison
are a symbol of the frontier. Right? So, the American
frontier, the untamed Wild West that was part of Wilson’s
vision scientifically. And the bison are just
an instantiation of that or an enduring symbol.>>Deborah Harris: Robert Wilson
actually designed this building, the high-rise at Wilson Hall. You know, he was inspired by a
cathedral in France somewhere, and so the idea is that in the
cathedral you walk in and it’s, you know, broad at the bottom
and then narrow up at the top. That’s what he was inspired by. And it is a really
beautiful building. A huge number of countries
send physicists to Fermilab to do these experiments because
it’s one of very few places in the world where
they can be done. And so, all of these
flags represent all of those different
visitors who are here at the lab doing experiments.>>Aaron Soha: This
is the Fermilab Remote Operations Center. So, this provides a place
for scientists to participate in the CMS experiment. It’s really exciting being
involved on a project of this scope with
collaborators around the world. You feel the global nature
of this project every day as you think about
the time difference — the seven-hour time difference.>>Here in Batavia we’re 40
miles outside of Chicago, but we’re 4,000 miles from the
experiment location in Geneva. And we can do — a lot of
the same things that are done in that control room,
we can do in this room. One of the things people
notice first when they walk in is a 24-hour-a-day
live video connection between the different
control room sites. And so, this live video
display lets us communicate with our colleagues at
the different remote and central control rooms.>>If you were to wave,
will they wave back?>>Hi. Can you hear us in the Point 5 control
room from Fermilab?>>Yes.>>Hi. So, yeah,
sorry to interrupt. If it’s okay with you,
can you step back a foot or so and wave hello? [laughter]>>Okay.>>There. Okay.>>Hello!>>Ah, hi. There’s a lot of people like
myself who actually are working on both experiments in
Batavia and at the LHC. So, right away you can tell
we’re pushing for both of them. We’d like both of them to
succeed and are excited about developments at
experiments at either site. We’re here monitoring the
data on the front lines. We see things as they come in. And occasionally, we’ll
see an event that flashes up on a screen that
looks interesting. Then we know we’re going to have
something interesting to look at in our physics analysis. It’s important for
Fermilab to continue working on the Energy Frontier
experiments which are right now
starting up at CERN so that we maintain
our involvement in the forefront
of this research. [ Music ]>>David Schmitz:
Well, we’re satisfied with the structural
integrity of the tank. And now we put it on a truck. Take it over to the
NuMI near detector hall. Lower it down a shaft 330 feet. Take it down to the detector
and hoist it up and slide it into the small 11-inch gap that
was left specifically for it and then refill it with water,
and we’ll have our water target. [ Music ] These guys are going to
very carefully bring it down this shaft. And drop it down into the
slot that we’ve left for it. [ Music ] I can’t believe how
close that crossbeam is. [ Music ]>>John Voirin: You never
know the problems you run into but we’re able to work it out. And if Bob’s happy, we’re happy. You happy?>>Yeah.>>Good.>>Dan Ruggiero: I mean, it should fit pretty well,
so I think we got it.>>David Schmitz: The gap
here is about 11 inches and you can see that the water
tank is using about 9 of those. And sure enough they got it in
safe and sound and were able to squeeze it in to
its final resting spot. The next step will be
to fill it with water. And start looking for
neutrino interactions. There I am right there. Dave Schmitz. Oh, and my mom was in
town, so I signed for her. [laughter] [ Music ]>>Brendan Casey: The
most exciting time is when you first turn
on an accelerator. It’s like the first time
you worked on your car. You did something like change
the transmission, yourself. Now what happens the first
time you turn that key?>>Mary Convery: The first way
you know a shutdown is a success is you’re able to
turn back on again. [laughter] You know, there’s
a huge number of people in the control room
the past couple days, which is a clear sign
that things are going and everybody is excited to get everything back
up and running again.>>Brendan Casey: So,
it’s looking good. Everything’s positive. It’s clear. We didn’t break anything.>>Deborah Harris:
It means data. It means that we can sit back
and watch the data roll in and do the analysis,
and so that’s great. In a way, it’s a
less hectic time than during the shutdown
because we just run. We just take data. Watch it come in. Make sure everything looks good.>>Mary Convery: So, things are
starting to really come up now.>>So, we hope to
complete tuning up the Main Injector today
and that’s sort of the gateway to all the other machines. So, now that we’re
able to get beam through the Main
Injector we can send beam to all the other machines. Probably by this weekend, we’ll
be back to regular operations.>>Brendan Casey:
So far it looks like everything’s very good. It looks like it’s going to be
a very exciting turn-on period and be a very exciting year
of accelerator performance. [ Music ]>>Is it weird for a
physicist to be in this work? [laughter]>>David Schmitz:
No, not at all. It seems just as often
that I, you know, mention that I play softball or other sports while
I’m at the lab. You know, some turn their noses
and other people are ready to sign up and join
you the next weekend. [applause] I get, you know,
universally the same response from my friends and teammates and whoever else I
meet here in the city. When they find out that that’s
where I work and that is: Oh. Can visitors come there? You know, can I come and see it? Like, I’ve heard about it. Those who were from the
area might say: I went there when I was in the seventh
grade but, you know, not since. Or: I’ve heard about
it but never seen it. And everyone pretty much
across the board requests to come out and visit. And I always say: Any time. Come out any time. [ Music ]>>Deborah Harris: I would
really love it for science to mean in this country
the scientific method and questioning everything and
wanting proof of everything. Unfortunately, in this country,
I think science is this: Oh. It’s this really tough thing that you have to
be so smart to do. And first of all,
that’s not true. You know, it’s really not true. You have to work hard. You have to be familiar
and comfortable with math. But, you know, you don’t
have to be a genius, right, to be a scientist. I could tell you. You don’t have to be a rocket
scientist to be a scientist. We need more people who
understand science and logic and are able to make
educated guesses or to know when they don’t have
enough information to make educated guesses. And I think we need those
kinds of people in government. We need these kind of people
as doctors; as lawyers; as, you know, judges;
as politicians. You know, we don’t need them
just all to be scientists.>>Brendan Casey: When
you’re doing science at these different
frontiers, what you find is that the technology
just doesn’t exist. We need faster computers,
better materials. Stronger materials. Lighter materials. More flexible materials.>>Craig Hogan: You
meet those challenges and then they propagate out
into the rest of society and raise everybody’s
standard of living.>>Deborah Harris: I was
in Greece this summer for a conference on — it
was a whole conference all on neutrinos. And while I was there,
I went to a store that sold all these things
made out of olive wood. And apparently, olive wood
— olive trees take, like, 50 years to bear fruit. And so, you don’t even — it’s not even something
you do for your children. You don’t plant an olive tree because your kids are
going to get the olives. You do it because your
grandchildren are going to get the olives. And to me, I think that’s kind of what we’re doing
in particle physics. We’re trying to understand
the universe. And, yeah, maybe somewhere down the line our
grandchildren will realize: Oh. You can use this and build
another World Wide Web; or they’ll understand
what to make of these measurements
that we’re doing now. They’ll figure out some theory that it knits everything
together and makes sense.>>Herman White: The reason
for doing this kind of work is so that we can actually
learn something new. And we do that almost every day. But Fermilab has the
capability right now of basically changing our
whole view of the universe. And quite frankly, if
you do have the knowledge to understand how the
universe is put together, you might actually solve some
of the problems that we have. I’m always fond of
saying that the work that I do solve problems that
we don’t know we have yet. It may not actually
solve the problem that we can identify
today, but 50 years from now it might be exactly
the piece of knowledge that you have to
help you survive. [ Music ]>>Brendan Casey: We
have the facilities. We have the ideas. The sky is really the limit,
and it’s a very exciting time to be a scientist here
because you get to be a part of the answer to the
question of: What’s next? [ Music ]

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  1. Thanks so much for this posting and the analogies therein,helping people like myself to understand what goes on within these laboratories.
    Thanks again.

  2. I feel like the energy frontier's stuff that "comes out of what is smashed together" is the measurement of any particular capita of a section from a larger capita forced to decay at a much faster rate than nature would naturally allow.

  3. This is a great documentary! Great work and thank you for sharing with us. Regardless of the field of study scientists have the best job in the world because their work contributes to the betterment of humanity. Whether it is medicine, chemistry, engineering, physics, etc. we need to promote science any way and as often as we can. I love physics and this video reminds me that we can achieve anything that our imagination can fancy. Bravo!

  4. I am absolutely amazed by how all these scientists work together – with scientists of the same discipline as well as other disciplines – for the greater good of humanity.
    Thank you.

  5. English and Spanish captioning is available, but in English the statement includes: "The first way you know a shutdown is a success is you're able to turn back on again. [laughter] You know, there's a huge number of people in the control room the past couple days, which is a clear sign that things are going and everybody is excited to get everything back up and running again."

  6. Thank you for the help!
    english isn´t my antural language and i still have problem undestanding some parts.
    im gonna rewatch for sure. 🙂

  7. In fact, they do have a road and grounds crew – 10 square miles of property means there is always something to be done!

  8. When shooting the neutrinos at the water tank, what about the actual tank and tank components? Won't "tank" particles (plastic and metal, etc.) be hit as well? Or is there more to it than that?

  9. When neutrinos propagate through matter there is a small chance that they will interact anywhere.
    If they so happen to interact in the tank material, physicists have developped 'triggering' algorithms to rule the punch-through particles produced this way, out:)

  10. I love Fermilab, when I was 11 years old I visited the accelerator. With vip pass from my mums friend that worked there.

    🙂

  11. I love Fermilab, when I was 11 years old I visited the accelerator. With vip pass from my mums friend that worked there. Hello from Lemont.

    🙂

  12. wow this is fine….we will see in the near future how patical phyz will be used to cure cancer…and we once thought it was just pure research with no rewards..amen hallelujiah…Fermi and me –cures cancer–thank yu lord of all wisdom..for these great Fermi people

  13. How can a muon loose 200x of it's mass without a trace and why do they live show short ???

    Can mass be created or removed without a release of energy ?

  14. Hou cane they KNOW the neutrinoes caught in Minnesoto are the ones sent from Fermilab? Since neutrinos are flitting all around from othar sources like the sun, and they can pass all the way thru the earth?

  15. But wait. Each time Fermilab is turned back on, it creates more and more yottabazilljon bits of data that takes months years decades to analyse. And probalby evan worse for LHC. Is this nought a probelm? Things you wish to know about already hiding in the data you already have?

  16. Without knowing almost anything about the financing scheme of the Fermilab, it seems to me that the Fermilab is a nice, cozy, place for the small elite set of scientists, who are favored by the Washington de facto royal hierarchy. The rest of the Americans get to starve, be without healthcare, be without any adequate legal representation even when being threatened with a death sentence. Empires do fall. Even the Rome fell. If the Washington is suddenly not able to pay the salaries and expenses of the Fermilab staff, for example, when there is a monetary collapse due to the inflation that will occur, when the U.S. starts to print money to "pay" off its Government debt, then what will happen with the Fermilab facility?

    I think that it would have been smart to build a small "research reactor" for the Fermilab during the Cold War and use the savings from the enormous electricity bill that all those accelerators must create, for gathering savings. The main office building seems to have a lot of investments put into it, but it has not been upgraded to use solar panels to keep its expenses to a minimum. The same with the local data center and other local facilities. It's like the Fermilab Scientists have learned absolutely NOTHING from the collapse of the various scientific institutions of the former Soviet Union.

    So, it's not just the physics that I do not understand about the Fermilab.

  17. OMG, I took a detour to fermilab moving across the country one time. I saw one young real physicist in Wilson Hall sitting behind a glass wall and looking very unimpressed by several large monitors. I saw another group of people having a meal at some tables but they turned out to be janitorial staff. I wonder if they knew I thought they might be physicists? And then I went and saw a buffalo. I'm pretty sure it wasn't a physicist.

    Ah good times!

  18. "it's like searching for a needle in a haystack, and the haystack is in a field of hay, and the field covers three quarters of the planet." hahaha awesome

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